時間:2016-12-08 14:53:25

Lesson 33   Education教育

     First listen and then answer the following question.
     Why is education democratic in bookless, tribal societies?
     Education is one of the key words of our time. A man without an education, many of us believe, is an unfortunate victim of adverse circumstances, deprived of one of the greatest twentieth-century opportunities. Convinced of the importance of education, modern states 'invest' in institutions of learning to get back 'interest' in the form of a large group of enlightened young men and women who are potential leaders. Education, with its cycles of instruction so carefully worked out, punctuated by textbooks -- those purchasable wells of wisdom-what would civilization be like without its benefits?
     教育是我們這個時代的關鍵詞之一。我們許多人都相信,一個沒有受過教育的人,是逆境的犧牲品,被剝奪了20世紀的最優越的機會之一。現代國家深深懂得教育 的重要性,對教育機構投資,收回的‘利息’便是培養出大批有知識的男女青年,這些人可能成為未來的棟梁。教育,以其教學周期如此精心地安排,并以教科書 -- 那些可以買到的智慧源泉 -- 予以強化,如果不受其惠,文明將會是個什么樣子呢?
     So much is certain: that we would have doctors and preachers, lawyers and defendants, marriages and births -- but our spiritual outlook would be different. We would lay less stress on 'facts and figures' and more on a good memory, on applied psychology, and on the capacity of a man to get along with his fellow-citizens. If our educational system were fashioned after its bookless past we would have the most democratic form of 'college' imaginable. Among tribal people all knowledge inherited by tradition is shared by all; it is taught to every member of the tribe so that in this respect everybody is equally equipped for life.
     至少,這些是可以肯定的:雖然我們還會有醫生和牧師、律師和被告、婚姻和生育,但人們的精神面貌將是另一個樣子。人們不會重視‘資料和數據’,而靠好記 性、實用心理學與同伴相處的能力。如果我們的教育制度仿效沒有書籍的古代教育,我們的學院將具有可以想象得出的最民主的形式了。在部落中,通過傳統繼承的 知識為所有人共享,并傳授給部落中的每一個成員。從這個意義上講,人人受到的有關生活本領的教育是相等的。
     It is the ideal condition of the 'equal start' which only our most progressive forms of modern education try to regain. In primitive cultures the obligation to seek and to receive the traditional instruction is binding to all. There are no 'illiterates' -- if the term can be applied to peoples without a script -- while our own compulsory school attendance became law in Germany in 1642, in France in 1806, and in England in 1876, and is still non-existent in a number of 'civilized' nations. This shows how long it was before we deemed it necessary to make sure that all our children could share in the knowledge accumulated by the 'happy few' during the past centuries.
     這就是我們最進步的現代教育試圖恢復的“平等起步”的理想狀況。在原始文化中,尋求和接受傳統教育的義務對全民都有約束力。因而沒有“文盲”(如果這個字 眼兒可以用于沒有文字的民族的話)。而我們的義務教育成為法律在德國是在1642年,在法國是在1806年,在英國是在1876年。今天,在許多“文明” 國家里,義務教育迄今尚未實行。這說明,經過了多么漫長的時間之后,我們才認識到,有必要確保我們的孩子享有多少個世紀以來由‘少數幸運者’所積累起來的 知識。
     Education in the wilderness is not a matter of monetary means. All are entitled to an equal start. There is none of the hurry which, in our society, often hampers the full development of a growing personality. There, a child grows up under the ever-present attention of his parent; therefore the jungles and the savannahs know of no 'juvenile delinquency'. No necessity of making a living away from home results in neglect of children, and no father is confronted with his inability to 'buy' an education for his child.
     荒涼地區的教育不是錢的問題,所有的人都享有平等起步的權利。那里沒有我們今天社會中的匆忙生活,而匆忙的生活常常妨礙個性的全面發展。荒涼地區的孩子無 時無刻不在父母關懷下成長。因此,叢林和荒涼地區不知道什么叫“青少年犯罪”。人們沒有必要離家謀生,所以不會產生孩子無人管的問題,也不存在父親無力為 孩子支付教育費用而犯難的問題。
     New words and expressions 生詞和短語
     n. 傳教士
     n. 被告
     n. 視野
     n. 能力
     adj. 民主的
     n. 部落的
     n. 部落
     n. 文盲
     adj. 義務的
     v. 認為
     n. 方法,手段,財產,資力
     v. 妨礙
     n. 大草原
     adj. 青少年
     n. 犯罪
    Notes on the text課文注釋
    1  Education , with its cycles...,punctuated by textbooks...,這句話中的主語Education與punctuated并不是一種主謂關系,因此,這句話在語法上被稱作單元句。
    2  So much is certain,有承上啟下的作用:一方面回答了前一段最后一句的提問,另一方面開始列舉沒有教育將會給社會文明帶來的影響。
    3  be fashioned after, 按...做成。
    4  without a script , 沒有文字的。

Lesson 33   課后練習和答案Exercises and Answer

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